Microfabrication makes microdroplets 'pattern-obedient' but Gibbs equation 'disobedient'

This article discusses a breakthrough in microfabrication, where researchers have developed a method to control the shape, size, and contact angle of microdroplets on surfaces with micropillared structures. This technique, based on topological wetting states, allows for the creation of microdroplets with a wide range of contact angles and patterns, including circles, triangles, squares, and even heart shapes. This innovation challenges the traditional Gibbs equation, as it enables the microdroplets to exhibit contact angles beyond the limits predicted by the equation, suggesting a need for its modification at micro and nano scales. The findings have significant implications for microfluidics, chemical reactions, biosensing, and material manufacturing: